Cars User Interface

The cars are equipped with commands used for driving, passenger comfort and safety, normally managed by a combination of the use of the feet and hands, and sometimes the voice on the cars of the era 2000. These controls include a steering wheel , pedals for the brakes, and control the speed of the machine (and, to a manual transmission car, a clutch pedal), a shift lever or sticks change speed and a series of buttons and knobs to turn on the lights, ventilation, and other functions . Orders modern cars are now standardized as the throttle position and brake, but it was not always so. The controls are evolving in response to new technologies, such as power and integration of mobile communications drive.

Since the first invention of the machine, the controls became less and easy through automation. For example, all cars have had a manual controls time for the air valve, clutch, the ignition timing and a crank, instead of a starter motor. However, new controls have been added to vehicles, making it more complex. Examples include air conditioning, navigation systems and car entertainment. Another trend is the replacement of physical buttons and switches for secondary controls with touch-screen controls such as the iDrive of BMW and Ford MyFord Touch. Another change is that while the first cars with pedals were physically connected to the brake and accelerator, in the 2010s, cars are increasingly replaced the physical connections with electronic controls.

The cars are usually equipped with different types of lights. These include the headlights, which are used to illuminate the way forward and make the car visible to other users, so that the vehicle can be used during the night; In some jurisdictions, daytime running lights; red brake lights to indicate when you apply the brakes; amber direction indicators to signal the driver rotation intentions; The white color reversing to illuminate the area behind the car (and indicates that the driver or back); And on some vehicles, additional lights (eg position lights) to improve the visibility of the car. interior lights on the car ceiling are usually adapted to the driver and passengers. Some vehicles also have a light box and, rarely, engine compartment light.

In the United States, “1975-1980, the average weight [of the machine] fell from 1842 to 1464 kg (4,060 to 3,228 lb), probably in response to the increase in gas prices” and new energy efficiency standards. The average new car weighed 1461 kg (3221 lb) in 1987, but 1818 kg (4009 lb) in 2010, thanks to modern steel safety cage, anti-lock brakes, airbags and more powerful engines, if more effective. “The heavy machines are safer for the driver, from the perspective of accidents, but more dangerous to other vehicles and road users. The weight of a car affects fuel economy and performance, with more weight with a consequent increase in fuel consumption and reduction of performance. the SmartFortwo, a small city car, weighs 750 to 795 kg (1,655 to 1.755 lb). heavier cars are the cars of standard size, and long-term SUV SUV, as the suburbs.

According to a study by Julian Allwood of the University of Cambridge, the world energy consumption could be significantly reduced by using the car lighter, and an average weight of 500 kg (1100 lb) was said to be well achievable. In some competitions such as the Shell Eco Marathon, it means weight of 45 kg (99 lb) were also obtained. These machines are only car (always in the definition of a machine, even if the cars in 4 places are more common), they do show the reduction in the weight of the car and consumption Until consumption of 2560 km / l).

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The automotive industry

The automotive industry designs, develops, manufactures, markets and sells motor vehicles worldwide. In 2008, more than 70 million motor vehicles, including cars and commercial vehicles were produced worldwide.

In 2007, 71.9 million new cars were sold worldwide: 22.9 million in Europe, 21.4 million in Asia Pacific, 19.4 million in the US and Canada, 4.4 million in America Latin America, 2.4 million in the Middle East and 1.4 million in Africa. The markets in North America and Japan were stagnant, while those in South America and other parts of Asia grew strongly. Among the major markets, China, Russia, Brazil and India recorded the fastest growth.

About 250 million vehicles are used in the United States. Worldwide, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007; They burn over 260 billion US gallons (980 million m3) of gasoline and diesel per year. The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China and India. [10] According to some, urban transport systems based around the car have proved unsustainable, consuming excessive energy, affecting the health of populations and reduce the level of service despite increasing investments. Many of these negative impacts fall disproportionately on those social groups who are less likely to own and drive cars. The sustainable transport movement focuses on solutions to these problems.

In 2008, with the rapid rise in oil prices, industries such as the automotive industry undergo a combination of pressures on commodity prices and changes in consumer buying habits materials. The industry is also facing increasing external competition from the public transport sector, as consumers re-evaluate their use of private vehicles. Almost half of the fifty-one light vehicle of the United States should close down in the next few years, with the loss of 200 000 jobs in the sector, in addition to the 560,000 jobs lost this decade. In combination with strong growth in China in 2009, China became the largest producer of cars and the world’s largest market. Sales in China in 2009 reached 13.6 million, a significant increase over the one million domestic car sales in 2000. Since then, however, even in China and other BRIC countries, decreases the production of new cars.

Established alternatives for some aspects the use of the car include public transport such as buses, trolley buses, trains, subways, trams, light rail, cycling and walking. carpool arrangements and carpooling are also increasingly popular in the United States and Europe. For example, the United States, some carpool services have experienced double-digit growth in turnover and growth between 2006 and 2007. The services, such as car sharing offer residents to “share” a vehicle rather than own a car in already congested neighborhoods. bike sharing systems have been tried in some European cities, including Copenhagen and Amsterdam. Similar programs have been tried in many US cities. Other individual modes of transport, such as fast transport staff could be a viable alternative to automobiles if they prove to be socially accepted.

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A car

A car is a motor vehicle wheels, self-powered and used to carry an automotive industry product. Most definitions of the term specify that automobiles are designed to operate mainly on roads, having one to eight people, usually have four wheels with tires and be principally designed for the transport people rather than goods. 1886 is considered the year of birth of the modern car. In that year, the German inventor Karl Benz built the Benz Patent Motor Car. The cars have not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the Model T in 1908, an American car produced by Ford Motor Company. The cars were quickly taken in Member States in which they replaced the cars and carts pulled by animals, but they have taken much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and in other parts of the world.

The cars are equipped with commands used for driving, parking, passenger comfort and safety, and control of a variety of lights. Over the decades, features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex. Examples include rear backup cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems and car entertainment. The majority of service cars in the 2010s are powered by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of gasoline (also known by the name of gasoline) or diesel. Both fuels cause air pollution and are also blamed for contributing to climate change and global warming. Vehicles using alternative fuels, such as vehicles with flexible fuel based on ethanol and natural gas vehicles are also gaining popularity in some countries. Electric cars, invented early in the history of the car, it began to be marketed in 2008.

There are costs and benefits to the use of the machine. The use of car expenses include the costs of: acquiring the vehicle, the payment of interest (if the car is financed), repairs and car maintenance, fuel, depreciation, driving time, parking fees, taxes and insurance. The costs to society of using the car include: maintaining roads, land use, traffic congestion, air pollution, public health, health care and disposal of the vehicle at the end of life. Road accidents are the leading cause of injury deaths worldwide.

The benefits can include the demand for transport, mobility, independence and convenience. The benefits may include economic benefits which the creation of jobs and wealth from automobile production, sales and maintenance, the supply of transport, the welfare of the company designed and recreation travel opportunities and opportunities of income generation for the ‘ tax. The ability of humans to move flexibly from one place to another has far-reaching implications for the nature of the company. According to estimates, in 2010 the number of cars has increased by over one billion vehicles, compared to 500 million in 1986. The number is increasing rapidly, especially in China, India and other newly industrialized countries.

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